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Taurine supplementation associated or not with physical exercise: effect on the browning of white adipose tissue in elderly women with Sarcopenic Obesity

Grant number: 22/00221-6
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)
Effective date (Start): September 01, 2022
Effective date (End): June 30, 2027
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Nutrition - Nutrition Biochemistry
Principal researcher:Ellen Cristini de Freitas
Grantee:Gabriela Ueta Ortiz
Home Institution: Escola de Educação Física e Esporte de Ribeirão Preto (EEFERP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Ribeirão Preto , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:19/11820-5 - Nr1d1 function on the aging-associated Sarcopenia, AP.TEM

Abstract

The aging process is accompanied by metabolic changes that favor fat accumulation and decrease muscle mass, characterizing a condition known as Sarcopenic Obesity. Obesity generates low-grade inflammation, leading to an anabolic resistance associated with muscle protein catabolism, worsening the condition of sarcopenia, which aggravates the condition of Obesity by limiting muscle mass and functionality, decreasing total energy expenditure. Advanced age and high body mass are inversely associated with the amount of functional Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), composed of adipocytes rich in thermogenic proteins that increase substrate oxidation and energy expenditure, contributing to systemic metabolism. However, recent evidence shows that this tissue has excellent plasticity and can be restored even in the elderly. In addition, the beige adipose tissue is another type of tissue that emerges from the subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue (WAT), changing its phenotype to resemble the functions of BAT in response to beta-adrenergic stimuli. Some studies suggest that taurine supplementation and physical exercise are effective interventions in stimulating such thermogenic tissues, promoting what is known as BAT browning, in addition to having benefits on muscle maintenance via stimulation of the coactivating protein PGC1±. However, such evidence is limited to in vitro and animal models, and investigations in humans are scarce. Identifying an intervention capable of activating the plasticity of these thermogenic tissues, which seem to be inactive in obese and sarcopenic older adults, could help health professionals treat this condition. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze the effects of taurine supplementation associated or not with physical exercise in the browning of the WAT in a population of Sarcopenic Obesity older women. Volunteers from this specific population who have low appendicular lean mass (<15 kg) and a high percentage of body fat (>35%) will be recruited. The volunteers will be subdivided into three groups: taurine group (Tau), exercise group (Exe), and exercise and taurine group (Exe +Tau). The duration of the intervention for all groups will be 16 weeks. Data will be collected from the volunteers related to anthropometry, body composition, biochemical tests, and food intake. To assess the effects on browning, a biopsy of the abdominal white subcutaneous fatty tissue will be performed to analyze protein, lipidomic and genetic parameters of this tissue before and after the intervention. Data will be analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) or Kruskal-Wallis test depending on the normality of the data that Shapiro-Wilk will test. A significance level for p <0.05 will be accepted. All analyzes will be performed using SPSS software version 20. (AU)

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