Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is considered one of the most important species of native fish cultivated in South America, and represents a target species for breeding programs. Infections by Aeromonas hydrophila have been responsible for high levels of mortality in aquaculture worldwide, including in the production of pacu. However, the treatments against infectious outbreaks most used in aquaculture are predominantly based on the impactful application of commercial antibiotics. Therefore, a selection of superior genotypes for disease resistance is critical to maximize animal production in the context of sustainability and food security. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the ability of genomic selection through the use of a low-cost strategy based on the combination of targeted sequencing genotyping (tGBS), low density SNPs, and genomic imputation. Fifty pacu families belonging to the breeding center of the Unesp Aquaculture Center (CAUNESP / UNESP) and evaluated for resistance against A. hydrophila will be used as biological material. Subsequently, genomic imputation analyzes and prediction of accuracy of lost imputation using parental genotypes obtained using a medium-density panel previously developed for pacu (~ 30K SNPs), imputation of genotypes in progeny using a low-density panel (~ 1K SNPs), and genealogy-based imputation approaches. The effectiveness of genomic selection through the panel of low-density SNPs, through genomic imputation, will result in an economically viable strategy for the development of genomic selection for pacu, and will be very useful for application in the selection of superior genotypes of pacu resistant to A. hydrophila, which will allow the growing and sustainable development of production.
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