Turbulent boundary layers occur in most flows with industrial applications and in nature, and they usually develop under pressure gradients which modify their stability and turbulence properties. For example, boundary layers on aircraft wings, industrial rotors, and wind and gas turbines are subject to regions of favorable and adverse pressure gradients, the latter being more susceptible to separation. In this work, we will perform wall-resolved large eddy simulations (LES) to analyze the statistics of turbulent boundary layers. Different cambered airfoil profiles will be analyzed to understand the effects of varying adverse pressure gradients on the flow statistics. Tripped boundary layers will be analyzed for a range of subsonic Mach numbers at moderate Reynolds numbers. A study of anisotropy will be conducted through analysis of the Lumley triangle, Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor, scatter plots of velocity components and probability density functions. The role of pressure gradient will be assessed in terms of budgets of turbulent kinetic energy and flow modal decomposition techniques will be employed to extract coherent turbulent structures in the flow. The importance of these organized structures will be investigated on the turbulence statistics.
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