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Developing an experimental approach to define sedimentary degassing from large igneous provinces related and unrelated to mass extinction

Grant number: 21/11092-0
Support type:Scholarships abroad - Research
Effective date (Start): February 14, 2022
Effective date (End): February 28, 2022
Field of knowledge:Physical Sciences and Mathematics - Geosciences - Geology
Principal researcher:Adriana Alves
Grantee:Adriana Alves
Host: Olivier Bachmann
Home Institution: Instituto de Geociências (IGC). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Research place: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland  
Associated research grant:19/22084-8 - The Paraná Magmatic Province: petrogenesis, chronology and environmental impact of Cretaceous tholeiitic, alkaline and silicic magmatism in the Brazilian Platform, AP.TEM

Abstract

It is widely thought that major volcanic events can play a key role in triggering biotic crises byintroducing climate change volatiles, such as carbon dioxide and sulfur, into the atmosphere.Indeed, several mass extinction events coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces(LIPs), but not all LIPs are correlated with an extinction. It has been suggested that LIPs withhigher sulfur (S) contents and with CO2- and sulfate-bearing bedrocks are more likely to triggerextinctions. The hypothesis has not been fully tested due to uncertainties in reconstructingoriginal magmatic volatile contents and the volatile budgets of the sediments thermally affectedby such magmas. Here, we propose to reconstruct original (undegassed) volatile contents ofmagmas and sediments via petrological models (by combining chalcophile element systematicsand S solubility models to constrain volatile S; partially crystallized and re-homogenized meltinclusions from silicic and tholeiitic rocks to retrieve CO2, Cl, and F contents) and experimentalmethods (high T experiments in capsules loaded with sedimentary samples fromParaná-Etendeka and CAMP. Results of petrological methods are to be compared with data fromthree extinction-related LIPs (Siberian Traps, Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, and DeccanTraps). In that way, we intend to answer a longstanding question "What defines the potential ofLIPs to promote mass extinctions?".

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