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The role of gamma delta T cells in the acute Sepsis

Grant number: 21/08843-3
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): October 01, 2021
Effective date (End): September 30, 2022
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Pharmacy
Principal researcher:Fernando de Queiroz Cunha
Grantee:Amanda Curto Tavares
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Ribeirão Preto , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:13/08216-2 - CRID - Center for Research in Inflammatory Diseases, AP.CEPID

Abstract

Sepsis is defined as a highly lethal disease caused by a dysregulated immune system to infection (Singer et al., 2016). In this case, an infection can be intensified reaching systemic proportions characterized by an increased concentration of inflammatory mediators in the bloodstream and the presence of organ damage that can lead to death. Even today, sepsis is one of the main causes of mortality in the world, according to data from the Global Sepsis Alliance, the disease affects about 50 million people and has a mortality rate of 11 million a year. T lymphocytes are mediators of cellular immunity that, in order to perform their functions, depending on the recognition of peptide antigens generated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), a process that takes an average of 7 days to occur (Heit et al., 2002). However, in an infectious process, a population of gamma delta T lymphocytes is rapidly activated regardless of antigen presentation by APCs. When activated, these cells can produce Interleukin 17 (IL-17) that supports the control of the infection by promoting the recruitment of neutrophils. However, activation of gamma delta T cells in other tissues results in the recruitment of leukocytes to these uninfected organs which have the ability to cause tissue damage and death. In sepsis, the function of gamma delta T cells is contradictory and little explored. (AU)

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