Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. Although they were originally identified and described as 'marrow stromal cells', they have been identified in many other anatomical sites in the body. MSCs can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord and other tissues, but the most abundant tissue source is adipose tissue (ACTMs). Since these cells are adherent to plastic, it allows their expansion in vitro. The regenerative and immunoregulatory properties of ACTMs make them ideal for use as therapeutic agents in vivo. To identify the potential therapeutic effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal cells in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we will assess the functionality of ACTMs isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of normoglycemic Wistar rats and spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki at 16 weeks of age. The isolated cells will be evaluated in their immunophenotyping with specific antibodies CD29, CD45 and CD90 by flow cytometry. We will evaluate the proliferative capacity of isolated ACTMs with violet crystal staining and microscope analysis. Cell senescence will be assessed by the ²-galactosidase assay. The evaluation of the oxidative capacity will be using the Griess test with specific kit. The characterization of the ACTMs of diabetic rats can elucidate the possibility of allogeneic cell therapy in diabetic donors as a treatment for insulin resistance and T2DM.
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