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Risk and protection factors for the development of executive functions in adolescence: Pelotas 2004 birth cohort

Grant number: 20/13425-3
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)
Effective date (Start): April 01, 2021
Effective date (End): October 31, 2024
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Collective Health - Epidemiology
Principal researcher:Alicia Matijasevich Manitto
Grantee:Julia de Souza Rodrigues
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FM). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Executive Functions (EFs) are a set of cognitive skills that make possible to perform and control mental, attentional, behavioral and emotional processes in the face of conflict or distraction. EFs are part of everyday life and relate to the human capacities of attention, memory, problem solving and self-control. The development of EFs during childhood is associated with maturation of brain regions and is influenced by environmental elements that act as protective or risk factors. Epidemiological studies from the last twenty years revealed that risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, abuse and school bullying in childhood have a negative impact on EFs during adolescence. On the other hand, protective factors such as maternal warmth and the presence of a father figure have a positive impact on FEs during adolescence. Cohort studies revealed that continuous exposure to inappropriate affective interaction between mothers who have psychiatric disorders, such as maternal depression, and their children brings severe consequences for the EFs development. School deficit, drug abuse and behavioural problems are some of the consequences of the inadequate development of EFs in the adolescents´ life. Objective: To assess the effects of risk factors on EFs related to attention and working memory in adolescents belonging to the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Methods: The study design is a population-based birth cohort in Pelotas (RS), which included 4,231 (99%) live births in 2004. The outcomes of this study are the EFs of attentional control, selective attention and cognitive flexibility at 11 years old and working memory at 15 years old. The exposures will be divided into: early, assessed in the first year of life, related to the follow-ups performed in the perinatal period, 3, 12 months of age; contemporary exposures, evaluated from the first year of life. Confounding, mediating or effect modifying variables will be included in the models and eventually adjusted through statistical analysis. Results: The expected results may contribute to possible intervention and/or preventive measures that minimize the impact of risk factors on the EFs of children and adolescents. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
SATO, JOAO RICARDO; BIAZOLI JUNIOR, CLAUDINEI EDUARDO; MEDEIROS DE ARAUJO, ELIDIANNE LAYANNE; RODRIGUES, JULIA DE SOUZA; ANDRADE, SUELLEN MARINHO. A guide for the use of fNIRS in microcephaly associated to congenital Zika virus infection. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, v. 11, n. 1 SEP 29 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.

Please report errors in scientific publications list by writing to: cdi@fapesp.br.