Within the order Siluriformes, Loricariidae is a family composed of about 1,000 species and six subfamilies: Hypostominae, Loricariinae, Hypoptopomatinae, Delturinae, Rhinelepinae, Lithogeninae. Within the Hypoptopomatinae there are 19 genera and 139 species, including the genus Hisonotus with 33 valid species. Hisonotus depressicauda apparently represents a complex of species, and populations from the Rio Grande basin and the Paranapanema rivers may represent new species, as this was originally described for the headwaters of the Tietê river. In addition, there are two other species of Hypoptopomatinae (i.e., Microlepidogaster arachas, H. alicula and H. biamnicus) that can be closely related to H. depressicauda. Therefore, DNA barcoding analysis can help in species delimition of the H. depressicauda complex, as well as species of related genera. The objective of this work is to carry out a study of DNA barcoding in populations of species of the H. depressicauda complex, as well as related species, helping to delimit them and confirm the hypothesis of a possible new species in the Paranapanema river. Molecular analyzes will be performed using tissues conserved in ethanol and deposited at the Laboratório de Biologia e Genética de Peixes (LBGP) from Unesp, Botucatu. The amplification of specific regions of mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) will be performed using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique. The sequencing will be carried out at LBGP, Unesp, Botucatu.
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