The members of Parotocinclus are widely distributed through South America, from Andes in Venezuela to southeastern of Brazil, being one of the most specious genus of the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae, actually with about 30 valid species. The species of the genus are primarily herbivorous and lives from small to large rivers, always associated with marginal vegetation. Since the works of Eigenmann in 1889 several studies were performed with the goal of understand the relationship pattern among members of this group with other members of Hypoptopomatinae, and several of these works have recognized the genus as not monophyletic, with several species more closely related with members of the genus Hisonotus and Microlepidogaster. Therefore, the goal of the present proposal is to perform a molecular phylogeny of members of Hypoptopomatinae with emphases in species of the genus Parotocinclus with a dense sampling for the first time using a phylogenomic approach with about 2.500 Ultraconserved Elements (UCEs).
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