Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are two neuropeptides that, by interacting with their receptors (OTR, V1aR, V1bR e V2R), promote both physiological and behavioral functions. These receptors are part of the extensive family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which constitute targets for approximately 40% of all drugs and medications currently available on the market.OT, in particular, emerges as a notable player in inflammatory processes, transcending its traditionally associated roles in reproduction and social behavior. Recent research has revealed that OT plays a crucial role in modulating inflammation through its interaction with OT receptors (OTR).When binding to OTR, OT initiates a complex cascade of intracellular events that orchestrate the inflammatory response. This influence of OT on inflammation is of particular interest, as it extends beyond its initially identified function, suggesting new dimensions of its biological relevance.It is worth noting that, although OT is highly conserved in placental mammals, our group recently described new OT variants in New World primates. By delving deeper into our studies on these variants, such as Pro8OT and Val3Pro8OT, and their interaction with receptors in New World primates, we can gain valuable insights into how these variants may affect inflammatory processes in different species.This understanding of the functional implications of these variants in the activation of OTR in New World primates may shed light on how these animals have developed adaptations that may be related to inflammatory and behavioral stimuli, opening new perspectives for evolutionary research.Furthermore, the advancements resulting from these studies will not only enrich our knowledge of the evolution and adaptation of New World primates but may also have significant practical implications. They can contribute to the development of new drugs not only for the treatment of inflammatory processes but also for neuropsychiatric disorders and other conditions in which OT and AVP play crucial roles. This promising research promises to expand our understanding of the functions of these neuropeptides and their potential therapeutic applications.
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