Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic fungal disease that occurs in a variety of forms. It attacks the epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous, and may also present secondary infection, leading to lymphedema and occasionally squamous cell carcinoma. The infection is acquired in most cases by traumatic implantation, through the entrance of conidia, fragments of hyphae of the pathogen through the skin. The etiological agent in most cases reported is Fonsecaea pedrosoi being more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries such as Madagascar, Brazil, Mexico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic. In Brazil, the disease has been described in several states, being more common in the Amazon region, Southeast and Rio Grande do Sul. Treatment is considered a challenge, both for the duration and adherence of the patient, and for the efficiency, being described many cases of relapses and few cases of definitive cure. The treatments based on specific and isolated therapy, are not efficient due to the high relapse rate. It is suggested that the preventive approach through immunization is an alternative to reduce the number of cases in endemic areas associated with rural areas where conventional treatment becomes even more difficult. Given the importance of the adaptive immune response in fungal infections, this work aims to evaluate the protective character and the mechanisms involved in this, after immunization by heat inactivated Fonsecaea pedrosoi in murine experimental chromoblastomycosis.
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