Differences in venom composition produced by different snake species can result from distinct regulatory mechanisms occurring in each species. It is known that changes in expression levels of components of genetic regulatory networks are responsible for phenotypic differences. Recently, few studies showed that miRNAs can be related to modulation of the differential venom composition in ontogenetic shifting in adults and juveniles of snakes belonging to the Genus Crotalus and Hydrophis. Then, all these data together suggest that post-transcriptional modulation play key roles on venom composition and production. Despite these studies, comparative analysis among species focusing to identify regulatory elements and patterns that led to venom composition are still scarce. A study using proteome analysis reported differences in venom composition in Bothrops fonsecai and B.cotiara, despite the genetic similarity due to the recent divergence time between both species. In this sense, we will integrate data from transcriptome, miRNome and proteome analysis of B. fonsecai and B. cotiara, to identify miRNAs and their binding sites related to the differences in venom composition in snake species. Additionally, we will also check for putative elements in 5'UTR, such as uORFs, that can be involved in the increasing or decreasing of specific protein levels. The comparative analysis will help to bring insights into the modulatory components of the GRNs that shape the venom production in snakes.
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