In humans, more than a hundred trillion microorganisms, mainly bacteria, colonize the oral-gastrointestinal tract and the vast majority reside in the distal gut, and is termed microbiota. The most important contributions of the microbiota to the host include carbohydrate digestion and fermentation, vitamin production, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues development, polarization of specific immune responses and prevention of colonization by exogenous pathogens. However, when these mutualistic relationship between host and commensal is interrupted, the gut microbiota may cause or contribute to development of metabolic syndromes, such as insulin resistence, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition, increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation have been associated with metabolic endotoxemia, low grade inflammation and insulin resistance. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people with the disease is expected to increase from 366 million to 552 million people worldwide until 2030. The aim of this work is to characterize the intestinal microbiota isolated from stool samples from 30 T2D patients and correlate this data with dietary habits, zonulin concentrations and clinical data. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Bacterial DNA was extracted by using QIamp Fast DNA Mini stool Kit and microbiota will be characterized by real time PCR. Zonulin serum concentrations will be measured by ELISA kits. Researchers have made efforts to clarify the role of microbiota in obesity and in the T2D development and find new therapeutic approaches for the disease treatment. Additional studies are needed, and possibly the prevention of T2D in the future, involves interventions aimed to modulate the intestinal microbiota and permeability through diet and probiotic administration as a way to modulate metabolic endotoxemia and prevent obesity and T2D.
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