Obesity involves chronic subclinical inflammation mainly caused by the recruitment of monocytes and activation of macrophages in adipose tissue. As part of the innate immune system, these cells are essential for homeostasis. A common inflammatory mechanism activated is the toll-like receptors 2 and 4 pathways. They usually react to bacterial lipids signaling through NF-kB and PPARs, producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this sense, the management of inflammation through food bioactive compounds has been suggested. Juçara fruit (Euterpe edulis Mart.) is a potential nutraceutical for obesity-related inflammation treatment because of its rich composition in oleic acid and cyanidins. Oleic acid seems to prevent inflammation, insulin resistance, and DNA damage. Also, anthocyanins are a potential nutritional immunomodulator, inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid accumulation in macrophages. Considering this, we aim to analyze the effects of oleic acid and cyanidin to identify the compound with major effects on the inflammatory process of macrophages. For this, THP-1 cells are going to be exposed to 3 different treatments: oleic acid supplementation; cyanidin 3-O-²-glucoside supplementation; or oleic acid and cyanidin 3-O-²-glucoside concomitant supplementation. In order to evaluate the inflammatory cell response, the protein concentrations of IL-1², TNF-±, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1Ra, IL-10 in cell culture supernatants and of PPAR±, PPAR² and PPAR³ in the cells supernatants are going to be measured by ELISA and Western blotting respectively. Also, the expression of CD86; arginase; TLR4; TLR2; IL6R; IL10R; TNFR1; MCP-1; TNF-±; IL-6; IL-10; PPAR±; PPAR² and PPAR³ related cell differentiation and inflammatory pathways are going to be assessed by qRT- PCR. At the end of this experiments, we expect that macrophages treated with oleic fatty acids and cyanidin will probably have different anti-inflammatory responses with a more pronounced effect associated with treatment with the combined compounds, demonstrating that the synergy of nutrients has greater effectiveness preventing inflammation related to non-communicable chronic diseases such as obesity.
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