Vocalizations are the main signal conveyed by males of most amphibian anuran species in reproductive context. These signals, conspicuous and stereotyped, are applicable to, for instance, behavioral studies in the light of evolution, such as sexual selection, speciation and mechanisms of production and recognition. Leptodactylidae is a species-rich taxon (> 200), with representatives throughout the Neotropics. The group exhibits a high diversity of vocalizations. The diversity of call patterns accentuates the potential to studies that aim at evolutionary processes explaining the high variability of acoustic signals in these organisms. Laryngeal structures have been associated with acoustic patterns in other anuran groups, even though detailed morphological descriptions are still scanty. A comprehensive review and association of the vocal morphology and the myriad of acoustic patterns recognized for this taxonomic group might be promising. This project aims to characterize the vocal morphology for the first the time of a frog family (Leptodactylidae) and address the degree to which acoustic traits and laryngeal structures are associated using a phylogenetic comparative approach. The results of this project will bring novelties on the vocal morphology and, more broadly, give insights into the underlying evolutionary processes involved in sound production in Anura.
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