Organic residues from agroindustry have been used as soil amendments for a long time, being manure and vinasse two important examples. Vinasse is a liquid waste from distillation step in ethanol fuel production in Brazil and is widely used in fertigation of sugarcane crops. Vinasse contains a great amount of water, minerals and organic matter, so it is a source of nutrients and water to soil. On the other hand, its use as fertilizer can lead to the contamination of soil, rivers and groundwater with undesirable substances. Among them, antibiotics are the groups of contaminants of major risk and concern. Thus, it is necessary to assess the potential environmental risks associated with the fertigation with vinasse to better understand the risks posed by this agricultural practice. In this project we aim at determining the antibiotic residues (i.e. penicillin G, monensin A, salinomycin, virginiamycin S1 and M1, and tetracycline) in soil and groundwater samples from areas that were fertigated by vinasse (targeted analysis) and compare the use of vinasse and manure as fertilizers, in terms of contamination potential. Besides that, it is also proposed to perform a non-target screening approach to both identify other relevant organic contaminants present in vinasse, soil and groundwater and to characterize the dissolved organic matter (DOM) of vinasse and groundwater to identify if fertigation has been a source of contamination (untargeted analysis). The technique Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap (QqLIT) will be used to perform the targeted analysis and UHPLC coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) will be used for untargeted analysis.
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