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Oral microbiota (microbiome) and antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms potentially transmissible by dog bite

Grant number: 18/07345-7
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): July 01, 2018
Effective date (End): February 29, 2020
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Veterinary Medicine - Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Acordo de Cooperação: Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES)
Principal Investigator:Marcio Garcia Ribeiro
Grantee:Fábio Vinícius Ramos Portilho
Host Institution: Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FMVZ). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Botucatu. Botucatu , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The close relationship between humans and their pets in recent decades has greatly increased the risk of bite attacks and consequently the transmission of diseases between them. Despite the knowledge about procedures and prophylaxis after rabies virus exposure, several other microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi belong to the dogs' oral cavity's normal microbiota. Previous studies have described the isolation of bacteria found in the oral cavity of their pets, particularly Pasteurella multocida, streptococci, staphylococci and Fusobacterium spp. by conventional microbiological culturing in human wounds. Thus, it is correct to say that lesions caused by dog bites in humans are considered polymicrobial and potentially contaminated. This fact stands out the need of treating human lesions with broad spectrum antimicrobials, in addition to other cleaning and prophylaxis measures established by the rabies virus and tetanus exposure protocol. However, it is not common to be concerned with the microbiological identification and "in vitro" microbial sensitivity tests of the agents present in human wounds caused by dog bites because in many cases they are caused by homeless animals that evade after aggression. Still, studies of microorganisms of healthy dog's oral cavity's are practically incipient in Brazil. In the last decades, the refinement of molecular biology and protein analysis (proteomics) techniques has made it possible to obtain microbiological diagnosis with more accuracy. Sequencing and large-scale PCR of microorganisms (microbiome) has emerged as a promising method for identifying the terrestrial microbiota in different habitats (Terrestrial and Oceanic Microbiome Project), aiming to identify ecology and biomes on a global scale. In humans, the use of microbiome in the skin and gastrintestinal and oronasal cavities, envisions promising perspectives of preventive and personalized medicine with the knowledge of the individuals' microbiota (Human Microbiome Project), as well as of hospital environments. However, in domestic animals, the mucosal and conjunctival microbiome recognition and its health applications are still incipient. In this context, no studies with the oral mucosa microbiome of dogs in Brazil were found in the consulted literature. In fact, the present study intends to investigate the presence of bacterial and fungal agents - by conventional techniques of microbial culture, by PCR and large-scale DNA sequencing (microbiome) and anaerobic classification by proteomics - including zoonotic potential pathogens, as well as to investigate "in vitro" susceptibility/resistance profile of the isolates, in order to recognize the microbiota and to provide subsidies for the treatment of humans attacked by dog bites. (AU)

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Academic Publications
(References retrieved automatically from State of São Paulo Research Institutions)
PORTILHO, Fábio Vinícius Ramos. In vitro antimicrobial resistance and oral microbiota of dogs diagnosed by next generation sequencing and mass spectrometry. 2020. Master's Dissertation - Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. Botucatu Botucatu.

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