Probiotics are viable bacteria with proven benefits to overall health. During the last decade, the use of probiotics is also aimed at oral health. Studies report the benefits of these bacteria in the control of periodontal diseases and cavities. However, there is no study linking probiotics with endodontics and more specifically, the action of the probiotic on the periapical lesion. The objective of this study will be to analyze and compare the periapical lesion development in rats with normal diet or diet supplemented with probiotics. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats, all receiving the periapical lesion induction, will be allocated in 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 8) normal diet; G2 (n = 8) systemic diet with probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) via gavage; G3 (n = 8) systemic diet with probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) via gavage. Throughout the experimental period, the animals and the feed consumed will be weighed daily. After 30 days of injury induction and administration of the diets, collection of saliva, root canal and blood contents will be performed, after which the euthanasia of the animals will be analyzed in order to analyze and compare micrographically and histometrically the periapical lesion; analyze and compare the tissues of the periapical region of rat teeth using the expression of the TRAP, OPG and RANKL proteins as cellular indicators of predisposition to reabsorption; analyze and compare the tissues of the periapical region of rat teeth using the expression of cytokines and IL-1² and IL-10 as indicators of local inflammation; analyze and compare the expression of IL-1² and IL-10 cytokines as indicators of systemic inflammation; analyze and compare the neutrophil, eosinophil, lymphocyte and monocyte concentrations between the experimental groups by hematological analysis; and to analyze and compare the concentrations of the cellular activity markers of bone metabolism: calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase and analyze the microbiota of saliva and root canals.
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