The analysis of the Moniliophthora perniciosa x MT interaction showed some evidences to be a case of a broken non-host resistance (NHR) by the S-biotype in tomato, but not by the C-biotype. The limited rate of MT penetration by basidiospores with emerging mycelia suggest a little developed pathogenic interaction between the S-biotype and MT. Molecular features of NHR will be evaluated by RNA-seq and NHR candidate gene expression analysis in the S- and C-biotype x MT interactions, together with histological observations of early penetration events. Recent reports in other pathosystems suggest that, besides effector proteins, pathogens can employ small RNAs (sRNAs) to directly manipulate the plant defense system, and, therefore, identification and expression analysis of sRNAs will be conducted during MT infection by M. perniciosa. sRNAs expression will be followed by RNA-seq during infection to investigate if this mechanism is also employed by M. perniciosa. The molecular analysis of non-host resistance (NHR), the potential involvement of small RNAs in the host x pathogen interaction and hormones in the defense response will be evaluated using the interaction ' Micro-Tom' (MT) tomato x basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa (S-Biotype) as a model of the cacao (Theobroma cacao) witches´ broom pathosystem.
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