Patterns of behavioral evolution were a major focus of ethology. In the last decades, this research field has increasingly focused on a quantitative framework once robust mathematical models (Phylogenetic Comparative Methods, PCMs) had arisen. Vocalizations are the main signal conveyed by males of most amphibian anuran species in reproductive context. These signals, conspicuous and stereotyped, have been an object for study in evolutionary behavioral studies, including sexual selection, speciation and mechanisms of production and recognition of acoustic signals. Leptodactylidae is a species-rich taxon (> 200), which is distributed throughout the Neotropics. The group exhibits a high diversity of vocalizations. The diversity of call patterns accentuates the potential to studies that aim at evolutionary processes explaining the high variability of acoustic signals in these organisms. Laryngeal structures have been associated with acoustic patterns in other anuran groups, even though detailed morphological descriptions are still scanty. An evolutionary study associating the structures of the vocal apparatus with the myriad of known acoustic patterns in this taxon can be promising for the understanding of acoustic evolution in anurans. This project aims to describe the diversity of acoustic signals in Leptodactylidae and to conduct an exploratory analysis on the vocal morphology of this group, analyzing for the first the time the extent of association between acoustic and morphological patterns through PCMs. The results of this project will contribute to the understanding of acoustic evolution in anurans, raising future questions in complementary research fields.
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