The organ transplantation has evolved as the treatment of choice for many patients with end-stage disease. Clinical and experimental evidence highlight the impact of brain death on the viability of the organ to be transplanted and confirm gender of donor as a factor that influences the result of organ transplantation. Brain death triggers immune system activation, with expression of inflammatory mediators, including endothelial adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines, and with the presence of inflammatory cell infiltration to the different organs. In this context, studies have shown that female sex hormones affect adhesion molecules expression by circulating leucocytes exercising also effects on its activation. The presence of inflammation and apoptosis induction may explain the quick organ dysfunction after brain death. Previous results evidenced higher inflammatory lung status in female rats submitted to brain death in comparison to male. Besides, studies have demonstrated gender differences in the presence of apoptotic cells on the lung tissue of rats undergoing pulmonary injury. From the idea that sexual dimorphism exists in the immune response to brain death and might influence the organ transplant prognosis, the aim of this study is to investigate the differences between the genders on expression of endothelial adhesion molecules on lung tissue and cell death in a model of brain death in rats.
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