The fish consumption has increased significantly in Brazil, however, mass production has been followed by pathogen agents. Among these, the phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970, stands out among the most important ones. Since 1984, in researches with Myxobolus cerebralis and later with other species, it is known that these parasites alternate between the host fish (myxospore stage) and an invertebrate host (actinospore stage), different stages of the same parasite. Up to the present moment, no more than 47 species of myxosporean had their life cycles elucidated. A great part of the diagnostic methods used to myxosporean are held at myxospore stage, through classical microscopy and histopathology tests that require great work and time. For actinospore stage, the diagnosis is more difficult, since, even nowadays, it depends on the observation of actinospores released by Oligochaetes under laboratory conditions. Despite the increasing production of fish, works with Brazilian fish myxosporean are still limited.Thus, the development of faster diagnostic methods capable of detecting the parasite in its early stages of development in invertebrate host is necessary, and it coud be an alternative for the indication of prophylactic measurements and thus reduce the spread of infection to fish . In this study, conventional PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR) will be applied in myxosporean detection in hybrid pintado from a fish farm , an important fish for Brazilian economy and, in identifying and quantifying these parasites, in oligochaetes possibly involved in the life cycle of the parasite.
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