The glomerulopathies are a diverse number of syndromes characterized by disorders that affect the morphological and functional integrity of the glomeruli. These disorders may be genetic, immunological or coagulation. The glomerulopathies, if not diagnosed and treated, can progress to chronic terminal disease. Kidney transplantation has been widely used for 20 years in order to promote the treatment and possible cure for some kidney diseases. As in glomerulopathies, the use of immunosuppressants is very intense and it favors the reactivation of some infections. Viral infections can occur in these patients, especially those called opportunistic. They are: the human adenovirus (AdV), the polyomavirus type BK (BKV) and herpesvírus, Epstein-Barr (EBV), HCMV, human herpesvirus 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7). These last four are lymphotropic virus. HCMV can cause disease in various organs and can even cause the individual death. HHV-6 and HHV-7 are similar to HCMV and can cause roseola infantum and neurological disorders. The AdV can cause gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, pneumonitis and hepatitis. The BKV has affinity for the urinary tract and may cause hemorrhagic cystitis, which may lead to renal transplant graft loss. The gamma-herpes Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus, B lymphotropic and it establishing persistent infection in over 90% of the adult population. EBV is associated with various benign and malignant proliferative disorders of lymphoid origin, such as mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, which in its oncogenic role has been widely studied. EBV is found in immunosuppressed, but today it is known to be universally distributed. Finally, laboratory diagnosis is essential to recognize the infection etiologic agent to the establishment of appropriate therapy and to guide the implementation of preventive measures such as the proper administration of antiviral drugs and the reduction of immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a study on the frequency of these viruses in patients with glomerulopathies and pediatric kidney transplant through laboratory surveillance following a scheme of blood and urine samples collection at certain intervals of time. DNA will be extracted from these samples and it will be conducted nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) tests with specific primers for each virus. It also will be used the antigenemia technique for HCMV. The results will be analyzed, and at the end of the study a statistical and descriptive analysis of the cases will be held.
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