The number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing due to population growth, aging, urban development, and the rise of the prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. In Brazil, DM is among the 10 leading causes of death, affecting approximately 7% of the population between 30 and 69 years old. DM is a chronic degenerative disease that modifies the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and is characterized by a lack of insulin secretion and/or by a decrease of tissue's sensitivity to insulin. The main medical complications associated with DM include nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary heart disease. Hyperglycemia, the increase of blood pressure levels, and the genetic predisposition are the main risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). It's known that DN is associated with the increased activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), stimulating the synthesis of angiotensin II, through angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Both renal damages caused by DM and the DN development can be significantly minimized by appropriate therapeutic approaches. It is well known that physical exercise, in addition to diet and pharmacological treatment, has been considered one of the three main approaches to treat DM due to the beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, metabolic control, and prevention of other chronic complications of this disease, such as nephropathy. However, until now, little is known about the effect of resistance physical training (RPT) on renal disorders and of RAS in the development of DN. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate the effects of PT on kidney changes caused by experimental diabetes, and the role of ACE in this process.
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