Adult stem cells are been isolated and characterized from different tissues like bone marrow, umbilical cord, brain, epithelium, dental pulp, and more recently adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue performs an accessible and plentiful source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). It possesses a high variety of cells but been mostly composed of adult adipocytes, pre-adipocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells of vascular fraction, endothelium cells, monocytes, and macrophages. Adipogenesis is a complex process, in which molecular signals are coordinated by genes until the final product that is the interactions cell-to-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix, all these mechanisms are important for adipocytes differentiation processes regulation. Hormonal and nutritional signals can affect positively or negatively this differentiation process. Thinking about this, chemical endocrine disruptors are natural or synthetic compounds that have the capacity of changing intrinsic functions mimicking or blocking endogenous hormones. TCDD is an environmental contaminant broadly studied, considered very toxic for man, and is able to connect and turn on aril hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This binding induces proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, although stimulation of these processes mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Fat tissue MSCs are good candidates to be used in cell therapy because of being easy to be harvested, isolate, and characterize and also has a favorable immune condition (low expression of Human leukocyte antigens-HLA). Considering the importance of the use of MSCs in studies that investigate Issues of Basic Science and Clinical Research, as well as the safe clinical application of these cells, becomes important to research the possible effects of TCDD (an endocrine disruptor exposed in high levels in the environment) on cell viability and on the expression of ABCG2 membrane protein in these cells. For this reason, the present techniques will be performed: immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, tri-lineage differentiation, immunocytochemical and western blot.
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