The Enteric Nervous System (ENS) is a subdivision of the Autonomic Nervous System consists of a network of neurons and glial cells that are distributed throughout the digestive tract (DT). This neuronal network is divided into two plexuses: the myenteric and submucosal, usually being between the first and second muscular tunics submucosa layer of the TD. The ENS is responsible for the regulation of peristalsis, relaxation and contraction and intestinal excretion chemicals bowel, thus very important for obtaining nutrients and food traffic control in TD. The ENS is present from invertebrates, such as arthropods, even animals more derivatives as mammals, where you can see a morphological diversity between groups, while maintaining the same network standard. In vertebrates, the myenteric plexus is very similar in all groups, varying only in the size of nerve cells, as well as the size of enteric ganglia. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the plasticity of ENS as well as changes across the external agents, such as contaminated food, changes in diet, and disease. Studies aimed at evaluating the effects of contamination on the ENS marine biota are scarce as well, considering that the TD is one of the first environmental contaminants from entering ports external this study aims to analyze which of the effects of marine pollution on the enteric neurons fish, puffer fish if Sphoeroides testudineus. To this end, the two regions will be collected specimens, one represented by the impacted area of São Vicente and a region not impacted represented by the State Ecological Station Juréia-Itatins. After collected and identified 20 examples of puffer fish Sphoeroides testudineus in each region will be collected and intestines intended for histochemistry of NADH-diaphorase technique for marking of myenteric neurons metabolically active. The neurons will be quantified in 60 microscopic fields, measured and the results analyzed by Tukey's test.
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