Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women. In Brazil, there are an estimated 57,120 new cases in 2014 and in 2011, 13,345 women died from this disease. Thus, there is a large number of patients who underwent mastectomy and breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction can be performed with different surgical tactics, including the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (TRAM), which is a musculocutaneous flap with a skin island dissected in the lower portion of the abdomen and its irrigation depends on the rectus abdominis (artery inferior) epigastric. The reconstruction with flaps can be complicated, with the primary necrosis, especially in smokers because nicotine has deleterious actions that undermine irrigation and healing. Several studies using low level laser therapy(LLLT) in order to increase the viability of the flaps. In this study, a TRAM flap surgery in rats treated with nicotine will be held and used is low-level laser (LLLT) on these flaps. 20 rats were divided into 4 groups: G1 (control) will be used: TRAM flap surgery; G2: Surgery + Nicotine; G3: Surgery + LLLT; G4: Surgery + Nicotine + LLLT. We will study the effect of LLLT on the viability of necrosis, angiogenesis (via the marker CD-31) and inflammation (interleukin dosage) of the TRAM flap subjected to the deleterious effects of nicotine in rats.
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