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Comparative morphology of integument and cutaneous glands of species of toads and salamanders from South America and North America

Grant number: 15/00999-3
Support Opportunities:Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): May 01, 2015
Effective date (End): October 31, 2015
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Morphology - Histology
Principal Investigator:Carlos Alberto Gonçalves Silva Jared
Grantee:Pedro Luiz Mailho Fontana
Supervisor: Edmund D. Brodie
Host Institution: Instituto Butantan. Secretaria da Saúde (São Paulo - Estado). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Research place: Utah State University (USU), United States  
Associated to the scholarship:14/15334-4 - The skin and the defense of toads (Bufonidae) against predators and desiccation, BP.DR


The presence of venom glands in the skin is a feature shared by all current amphibians. These glands are distributed throughout the body or grouped together in large numbers, forming macroglands, such as the parotoids, which are structures used for defense against predators mainly found in toads (Anura: Bufonidae) and salamanders (Caudata). In addition to the parotoids, some frogs display macroglands in other regions of the body. This is the case of the Brazilian toad Rhinella jimi from the semi-arid region, which have macroglands both in the posterior and anterior members and is being studied by our research group. The North American species Incilius alvarius is widespread in regions of the Colorado River and of the Sonoran Desert and resembles R. jimi by having macroglands in the same regions of the body and inhabiting in an environment with water restriction periods. These two species are therefore a good model for the comparative study of evolutionary aspects of toads in relation to the use of macroglands for defense and to their strategies for dealing with water balance. Furthermore, taking advantage of the US diversity of salamanders and the opportunity of visiting the laboratory of Dr. Edmund D. Brodie, one of the world's experts in these animals, we also intend to study the morphology of salamander parotoids, comparatively to toads, using the species Ambystoma gracile as a model. The grant will be a great opportunity for professional and personal improvement of the student and will enable exchanging of knowledge between laboratories and research groups through the development of joint projects with widely recognized experts of the international herpetological community. (AU)

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Scientific publications (4)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO LUIZ; JARED, CARLOS; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA MARIA; SCIANI, JULIANA MOZER; ARVALHO PIMENTA, DANIEL C.; STOKES, AMBER N.; GRANT, TARAN; BRODIE, III, EDMUND D.; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.. Variations in tetrodotoxin levels in populations of Taricha granulosa are expressed in the morphology of their cutaneous glands. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, v. 9, . (15/00999-3, 14/18703-0, 17/10488-1, 18/15425-0, 18/03265-9, 12/10000-5, 14/15334-4)
REGIS-ALVES, EDUARDO; JARED, SIMONE G. S.; MAURICIO, BEATRIZ; MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO L.; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA M.; FLEURY-CURADO, MARIA CECILIA; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.; JARED, CARLOS. Structural cutaneous adaptations for defense in toad (Rhinella icterica) parotoid macroglands. Toxicon, v. 137, p. 128-134, . (14/15334-4, 15/00999-3)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO L.; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA M.; BARROS-BATTESTI, DARCI M.; JARED, CARLOS; CAMPBELL, JONATHAN A.; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.. Toad Parotoid Pores Shelter Tick Larvae. South American Journal of Herpetology, v. 11, n. 2, p. 110-113, . (14/15334-4, 15/00999-3)
MAILHO-FONTANA, PEDRO L.; ANTONIAZZI, MARTA MARIA; RODRIGUES, ISABELA; SCIANI, JULIANA M.; PIMENTA, DANIEL CARVALHO; BRODIE, JR., EDMUND D.; RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; JARED, CARLOS. Parotoid, radial, and tibial macroglands of the frog Odontophrynus cultripes: Differences and similarities with toads. Toxicon, v. 129, p. 123-133, . (15/00999-3, 14/15334-4)

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