The carcinogenesis of the stomach has a complex etiology, in which genetic and environmental factors are involved, with different factors: such as viruses, bacteria and living habits. It is estimated that H. pylori remains the biggest risk factor for the onset of gastric cancer, since this pathogen is involved in inflammation of the stomach mucosa. It is also known that host genetic factors may increase the risk for premalignant gastric lesions and gastric cancer. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) receptors are important regulators of innate immunity that can be activated upon recognition of bacterial and viral ligands. Among them, TLR9 is present in gastric epithelial cells and assists the recognition of H. pylori and may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis and described as highly polymorphic. The objective of this work is to investigate by PCR-RFLP -1486T the TLR9 / C (rs187084) polymorphism in a group of patients with gastric diseases (both positive and negative for H. pylori), a group of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, and group of patients with normal histopathology were negative for bacteria. So as to evaluate the expression levels of the TLR9 gene in the gastric mucosa from the same tissue samples by PCR in real time and the possible association of this polymorphism in the promoter region with the level of protein expression of the receptors. The gene profile may signal found an association between this polymorphism and an increased risk for infection with H. pylori, as well as evaluated for gastric lesions.
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