The etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is related to genetic, environmental and dietary factors. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of NOD2 signaling pathway in the maintenance of homeostasis of the immune system and the gut microbiota. Unlike the human genome, the genome of microorganisms present in the gut microbiota is able to dynamic changes in the configuration of its components in order to adaptation of an individual component or a community in response to the type of food, some abnormality or antibioti use. The causal interaction between gut microbiota and obesity has been reported in mice germ-free colonized with gut microbiota of obese ob/ob mice that showed greater weight gain compared to those who received the microbiota of non-obese animals. This study infers that the microbiota is involved in the control of energy metabolism. Another mechanism by which the microbiome contributes metabolic disorders would be initiating a systemic inflammation. Thus, we aim to evaluate the importance of theNOD2 receptor in the insulin resistance and T2D development, such as to test the interference of microbiota intestinal in this process.
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