The proper cataloging of biodiversity has been considered an important element for the development of conservation policies. Therefore it is essential to increase our knowledge of the biodiversity of areas subject to environmental impacts. The Tapajós River and its tributaries have been under severe pressure due to the development needs of the country. However little is known about the biodiversity of monogenoideans parasites of fishes in this ecosystem. Monogenoidea corresponds to a specious group of worms flatworms, whose knowledge about their diversity in the Neotropics until the 60 was generated by analyzes of fish kept in aquariums of museums, especially in the United States. However, the documentation of the richness of this group has intensified in South America and, the recent descriptions of dactylogyrideans parasites of fishes of the family Pimelodidae have contributed to this. In South America are recognized 41 species of dactylogyrideans parasites of pimelodids, 15 of them in the Amazon basin. However, in the Tapajós River, Pará, neither species of this group was recorded. Considering the rich fauna of pimelodids (110 species), plus the fact that more than 75% of these hosts have not yet been examined for dactylogyrideans, it is assumed that there are unknown lineages of Monogenoidea and species to be described and cataloged in this region. Thus, focusing the studies on this host-parasite system, can provide a basis for future biogeographic studies and co-evolutives, which can support conservation actions. Although the morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies challenge the monophyly of subfamilies of Dactylogyridae, there is a consensus in the scientific community regarding the monophyly and diversity of this family. Nevertheless molecular studies were performed with terminals from other continents. Therefore, an approach inserting Brazilian species of Dactylogyridae and Ancyrocephalinae will fill an important gap to complement the studies, besides allowing to show the richness of this system with a clear circumscription of the groups. This project aims to inventory the fauna of Dactylogyridae parasites of four species of fish pimelodids from Tapajós River, PA, and propose a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships for these species of parasites, based on the sequencing of fragments of the genes 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and ITS1.
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