The number of obese individuals has shown great increase in the last years worldwide. In this context, bariatric surgery is one of the most frequently used procedures for weight loss. The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) which consists of the upgrading of the capacity of the patient's stomach and bowel, causing changes in food intake and absorption, the procedure is considered the gold standard by surgeons. In the period after surgery, a major challenge is to stabilize the weight in the long term, since many people gain weight in the late postoperative period. Currently, many studies are done in pursuit of understanding the complexity of obesity and the interactions between genes and environment in order that, with the identification of polymorphisms, genetic influence in food and metabolic response to be identified and better understood. Several potential genes associated with obesity are studied today and are considered as predictors of weight gain and body fat distribution, and is associated with measures of waist circumference, fat mass and associated diseases. The PPARG2 gene participates in the regulation of adipogenesis, fatty acid transport, metabolism of glucose and lipids, with great influence on obesity and may be associated with individual variations in body composition after bariatric surgery. Thus, we intend to analyze the influence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARG2 gene and changes in body composition and lipid profile in obese patients after 12 months of surgery. With the obtained results may be extended care to patients in post-bariatric surgery, obesity treatment and even prevention of obesity.
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