The continuous growing of the worldwide demand for fuels and the approval of new restrictive regulations for fuel quality in attempt to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the fossil fuels burning corroborate with the necessity of the development of new analytical technologies applicable to monitor the fossil fuels and biofuels quality parameters, which is largely increasing in Brazil.The commercialization sector and inspection policy of petroleum by-products also require new analytical techniques which are fast and able for in situ analysis to ensure the product quality for the final consumer. Moreover, monitoring fuel quality results in a reduction of the environmental impact caused by burning fossil fuels while minimizes fraud which jeopardizes consumers and causes taxes evasion.The importance of the production and commercialization sectors of petroleum and its by-products has been pushing the scientific and technological areas in many countries, due to the economical importance of the petroleum activities, which showed in 2012 a mean daily consumption of 88.8 million of petroleum barrels. When compared to developed countries, the Brazilian investments in this sector are still timid. This scenario has to be changed, primarily by the development of new techniques which can access chemical information in a fast way, with low operation costs and which can operate on-line in the petroleum and biofuels industry.In this way, the present work proposes the extension of the low-field (medium and low-resolution) Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) applications for the determination of quality parameters of fossil fuels and biofuels, in attempt to develop new low-field 1H NMR analytical methods to be directly applied for on-line monitoring of industrial process and in situ product inspection. The low-field 1H NMR presents the main requirements of the modern analytical techniques. It is capable to extract a significant amount of information from the sample in a short period of time, without the necessity of sample pre-treatments.
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