The streams of the Neotropical region harbor a small-sized fish fauna, frequently with limited geographical distribution and, generally, highly dependent on riparian vegetation for feeding, shelter and reproduction. The watershed native vegetation removal is one of the modifications which the effects on aquatic environments are not completely understood yet. The use of the deforestation history along with the current landscape structure enhances the power of analysis to evaluate the ecological deforestation effects. Moreover, distinct ways of the deforestation process might affect the fish community composition and functioning. For understanding how the historical process of deforestation interfered with the current features of fish diversity, two hypotheses surface: (1.) the functional erosion of the studied communities from the deforestation process occurs, and (2.) The way how the deforestation process was conducted and the age of the forest removal drives the composition and the diversity patterns by three distinct paths (i) the partial forest remain allows the diversity remains but occurs a little loss of species, (ii) the recent deforestation allows the diversity remains but occurs a great loss of species, and (iii) the ancient deforestation causes several damages on the ichthyofauna diversity and composition.
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