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Evaluation of expression of proteins PIK3CA, EML4-ALK, CMET, VEGF, CD44 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): gender differences and impact on survival rates

Grant number: 13/17547-2
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): November 01, 2013
Effective date (End): April 30, 2016
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Medicine - Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Pathology
Principal Investigator:Vera Luiza Capelozzi
Grantee:Daniel Ascheri
Host Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FM). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Lung Cancer (LC) is the principal cause of death worldwide. The two principal forms of LC are the non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC) and the small cells lung cancer (SCLC) that respond from 87 to 15% of all lung cancers, respectively. NSCLC can be divided in three principal sub-types histologically: squamous cells carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung carcinoma. The three types can be a result of cigarette smoking, but it is most strongly related to squamous cells carcinoma and SCLC. Adenocarcinomas are common in patients who never smoked and are principally found in women. In 2001, levels of NSCLC and SCLC began to drop in the mid-1980. In the same form, levels of squamous cells carcinoma, large cell lung carcinoma and SCLC among women leveled off in relation to the men; however, adenocarcinoma continued to rise. This fact called attention to researchers, who attributed this rise in female smokers. In addition, recent evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to the ingredients of cigarettes. Although these aspects are still controversial, we cannot negative deny the existence of genetic differences between both genders that perhaps explain the argumentation of the number of LC in women. Important changes have begun to happen in the treatment of LC, above all in respect to the large of alterations in molecule specific, such as mutations of PIK3CA, CMET, VEGF, CD44, and the translocation of EML4-ALK among others. As a result, changes in the mentality of epidemiology principally between the genders are changing rapidly, growing successively in the inclusion of a number of illnesses in women in therapeutic protocols, within the answers therapies encountered In this form, particularities of biology, natural history, histopathology, therapies, and diagnosis in women with LC remain to be clarified and, in some aspects, there is not a consensus. In this context, exists a necessity to implement large studies in order to compare the different features between the genders; since a large part of these referenced facts have yet to be studied. The recent discoveries of biomarkers as targets in therapies bring an important tool that should be studied for a better therapy selection and to also benefit those patients within the sub-groups to understand better the prefills of genetic alteration between the genders. It is of vital importance to have directed therapies that are effective; permitting personalized directed therapies in relation to the variations not only in the histologic type but also variations in regard to regions and also environmental conditions. (AU)

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