The necessity of permanency in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) symbolizes one of the main triggering factors colonization and infection by micro-organism, gram positive and gram negative. It is known that soon after birth, begins the bacterial colonization of the neonate by contact with the maternal micro biota of health professionals or from the environmental exposure. Newborns that remain on intensive care have increased predisposition to infection will later colonization. Many risk factors contribute to the development of infections caused by multi-resistant pathogens in the neonatal population, which the immaturity of the immune system, surgical procedures, devices and invasive mechanical ventilation. Thus, infections in the neonatal population are usually more critical than at any other stage of life. Increased survival and extending the period of internment of newborns has provided an elevation in the rate of infections, especially in NICU. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate samples of micro-organism, gram negative and gram positive sites isolated from nasal, axillary and umbilical cord of newborns, the NICU belonging to the Hospital das Clínicas (HC) of the Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (FMB) to determine the incidence of colonization and infection, etiology of infection, risk factors for colonization and infection, antimicrobial resistance profile and search for clones prevalent in the unit. Although, will be included in the study all newborns admitted to the NICU for a period of one year , samples collected by nasal swabs sterile sites, umbilical cord , axillary and monitoring of the newborn to the final outcome (NICU release or death). Micro-organisms isolated will be submitted to identification and sensibility test antimicrobial drugs ace for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by E-test technique. Among Staphylococcus spp. that presents resistance to methicillin is determined the type of SCCmec. For the research of clones prevalent in the unit, be held by the characterization of clusters by pulsed-field electrophoresis gel.
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