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Evaluation of gastric motility in diabetic pregnant rats

Grant number: 13/05044-6
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): May 01, 2013
Effective date (End): April 30, 2015
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Biophysics - Biophysics of Processes and Systems
Principal Investigator:José Ricardo de Arruda Miranda
Grantee:Laís Bueno da Silva
Host Institution: Instituto de Biociências (IBB). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Botucatu. Botucatu , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:10/07639-9 - Gastrointestinal motility: clinical investigations, physiopathology and biopharmaceutical, AP.TEM


Reproduction is a characteristic inherent to allowing live animals perpetuate their species. The pregnancy in humans is an event that involves physiological changes, biochemical and anatomical extensive in the mother and these changes may be systemic or local. The gastrointestinal tract is affected by the expansion of the uterus during pregnancy. This, in combination with the increase in intragastric pressure, increasing the volume and acid production, predisposing to reflux and heartburn. Symptoms such as nausea and vomiting observed occur in the first quarter from 50% to 90% of all pregnancies and are associated with increased prevalence of gastric slow wave dysrhythmias, affecting gastric motility. Animal studies show that progesterone has inhibitory effects on the gastrointestinal smooth musculature. Furthermore, progesterone decreases the tension of relaxation of gastric fundus and reduces the propagation speed of slow waves gastrointestinal possibly reduce the degree of electrical coupling between the smooth muscle cells, and the change in concentration of the hormone could be the possible cause of dysrhythmia and nausea in pregnancy [13]. In previous work on this project (process 2010/14845-4 FAPESP) gastric motility results obtained in the different phases of the estrous cycle. Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem worldwide and is often associated with symptoms and gastrointestinal motility disorders. This disease comprises a group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin action or secretion. Gastric motility abnormalities occur in 30-50% of patients with a long history of diabetes. In the literature, these abnormalities, particularly symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, have often been attributed to gastroparesis, developed as a result of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In healthy individuals, plasma glucose concentration is tightly regulated and kept within a narrow range of concentrations and these play a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. However, individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), show a significant decrease in gastric emptying. As the incidence of diabetes continues to grow increasingly in individuals of all ages, women of childbearing age are at increased risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy. Besides the large number of pregnant women who develop GDM, there are pre diabetic pregnant women with type 1 or 2 (DM1 and DM2) that further increase this number. This type of pregnancy requires special attention and care to both the mother and the fetus.On the other hand, methods employing the biomagnetism study magnetic fields generated by living organisms or by magnetic materials present therein. The Biosusceptometria Alternating Current (BAC) is a biomagnetic technique that has been used due to the advantages such as low cost and good sensitivity. The BAC when combined with standard techniques for recording electrical - such as electromyography (EMG) and Electrogastrography (EGG) - provide a model capable of representing the electrical and mechanical profile in normal and altered. Furthermore, the relationship between the electrical and mechanical records and concentrations of hCG hormones, estradiol and progesterone during pregnancy diabetic, can help highlight the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in gastrointestinal disorders observed. Thus, the goal is to continue this study and associate with other graduate work developed in this laboratory, doing analysis of motility and gastric emptying and evaluating the possible development of gastric changes throughout pregnancy in an animal diabetic.(AU)

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