Staphylococcus aureus are pathogenic gram-positive cocci that can colonize mainly nares, but also armpits, groin, gastrointestinal tract, skin and vagina. It is the major cause of severe and simple skin infections, but also causes osteomelite, bacteremia, sepsis, impetigo, carbuncle, toxic shock syndrome. Among Staphylococcus species, S. aureus has the greater potential for drug resistance being of particular importance the methicillin resistant strains and other beta-lactam antibiotics, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the emergence of vancomycin resistance levels (h-VISA, VISA, VRSA ), the main drug for the treatment of MRSA. Besides these lineages, others are found resistant to several different drugs. In order to predict the possible failure of therapy, it is important to determine the susceptibility profile of these organisms. Strains of MRSA become resistant to methicillin due to the presence of the mecA gene contained in the genetic element called SCCmec-cassette chromosome of Staphylococcus. Currently, there are eleven known types of SCCmec, with their respective subtypes what makes important to study the type of SCCmec present in each strain. The SCCmec type IV of this element was related in the literature with toxin production Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), which may cause deterioration during the infections caused by this pathogen. This project aims to study MRSA isolated from colonization of HIV-positive patients and from nurses who work with these patients in a hospital in Ribeirão Preto-SP. The objectives are: to define the susceptibility profile with drugs in use in Brazil, to investigate whether these samples present genes for PVL toxin, characterization of their SCCmec elements, to type the samples by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and each pulsetype by multilocus sequencing typing (MLST). It is possible to trace the evolutive profile of these strains and to compare with others already described. Studies like this can provide information such as the spread of some strains between the groups and it can generate subsidies to initiate stricter infection control. This can contribute to the reduction of hospital-acquired infections, reducing the patients length of stay and, consequently, the cost of these to the hospital. Besides, there is not enough data regarding the strains that colonize HIV-positive patients in the literature, becoming a very specific group to be studied.
News published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the scholarship: