The systematics and taxonomy of the neotropical snakes of the genus Bothrops has been active in recent decades, both due to descriptions of new species, revision of species groups, studies of phylogeography and biogeography historical, phylogenetic work looking like testing the monophyly of the genus. The group taeniata, is composed of six species and has been recognized as monophyletic in most of these works. Bothrops bilineata, one species of the group,is polytypic, wide distributed and currently involves two subspecies with disjunct distribution - B. b. smaragdina and B. b. bilineata. The first occurs in the western portion of the Amazon and B. b. bilineata in the eastern portion, is still distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The contact Amazon-Atlantic between these forms has generally been explained in the context of the theory of refugia that allowed past contact between these two major forest blocks at different times (Miocene and / or Pleistocene) and geographic areas (Northeast or Southeast Atlantic). However, neither the validity of current subspecies, nor the time of divergence between populations of B. bilineata has been tested to verify this hypothesis. The objective of this project is to verify the validity of subspecies of B. bilineata, based on morphological and molecular mapping the area of occurrence of lineages encountered during the project, analyze the molecular and morphological variation of populations of B. bilineata present in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest, and estimate when and where was the connection between these two biomes.
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