Analysis of Stimulants Amphetamines in Urine and Hair Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI), and Solid Phase Microextraction in Capillary (in - tube SPME) Techniques Coupled with Sequential Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS)
Stimulants are substances that act on the central nervous system and are able to reduce fatigue, at the something that they enhance competitiveness, alertness, euphoria, and motor skills. They are widely used by athletes in sports competitions, and by drivers who wish to increase alertness, not to mention that they can be employed as appetite suppressants.Toxic effects caused by amphetamines are the result of great neurological excitement and include: agitation, anxiety, tachycardia, hypertension, mental confusion, paranoia, cardiovascular collapse, headache, tremor, the possibility of addiction (addiction, as in the case of addiction to cocaine), seizures, hyperthermia, and renal failure. Prolonged use of amphetamines can cause psychotic reactions such as suicidal, homicidal, aggressive, or stereotyped behavior, as well as schizophrenia. Furthermore, amphetamines present tolerance and may lead to dependence.In this context, the determination of amphetamines in biological fluids such as the urine, plasma and blood, as well as hair samples, by means of analytical techniques that are simple to operate and highly sensitivity is necessary for evaluation of the use of these compounds.The ever - growing need for rapid analysis, with possible hyphenation miniaturized sample preparation techniques has resulted in the development of new techniques for mass spectrometry (MS) with ambient ionization in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), with a view to raising the analytical sensitivity and improve the monitoring of analytes and their metabolites in the target samples.In this sense, we can highlight the desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and solid phase microextraction capillary (in - tube SPME) techniques.DESI has been applied to a large number of samples. The analysis is performed directly on their natural matrices or by their placement on auxiliary surfaces, such as, glass, paper, metal, plastic, and silica plates.The in - tube SPME miniaturized sample preparation technique has gained prominence compared to conventional methods because it minimizes the sample volume and the consumption of organic solvent, allows for reuse of the extraction phases, enables the pre-concentration of analytes, and permits online coupling (automation) with chromatographic systems. This results in rapid process operations with high analytical precision and low limits of quantification.
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