Metabolic syndrome is related to several cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hyperuricemia and prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. Obesity is well recognized as the most important health problem related to the genesis of metabolic syndrome. Abnormalities in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome are mainly explained by increased adiposity, insulin resistance and alterations in transcription factors inherent to lipogenesis and lipolysis, both in the liver and adipose tissue. Several of these conditions are a consequence of the amount and the quality of the dietary fat. One of the main modifiable risk factors for the development of pathologies that make up this syndrome is dietary habit, since as the quantity as type of dietary fatty acid is important determinants on metabolic pathways. In recent decades, several studies have pointed to the harmful effects of trans fatty acids on health, especially with the increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Given scientific evidences, there were several simultaneous actions from both regulatory agencies and Health Companies responsible for the development of dietary guidelines to recommend reducing consumption of these fatty acids worldwide. Thus, public policies have been implemented to reduce the consumption of trans fats, which forced the food industry to change the source of fat used in their products. In order to ensure organoleptic characteristics similar to those offered by trans fats, the industry opted for the interesterified fats as a plausible alternative. Although the interesterified fats are free-trans fatty acids it is observed the increase in the amount of saturated fatty acids, besides the change in the distribution of fatty acids at positions 1, 2 and 3 of the glycerol molecule. Data show conflicting results regarding the action of these fats on the lipid profile, especially by the fact that different types of fatty acids can be used in their formulation. Given this, there is a need of conducting well-designed studies that evaluate not only the action of various saturated fatty acids used, but also the possible metabolic implications arising from the change in position of these fatty acids on the glycerol molecule. In addition, there are no publications which show their action regarding the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thus, experimental and clinical research that contribute to better elucidate the action of these fats on the development of diseases that comprise the metabolic syndrome, ie, increased cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes are important. Thus, this study aimed at assessing the effect of interesterification process in oil blends containing palmitic and stearic fatty acids on inflammatory and metabolic pathways in liver and adipose tissue in LDL receptor- deficient mice.
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