Brazil has shown about 40% of malaria cases in America and states that make up the Amazon account for 99% of cases in the country. In the state of Maranhão malaria is endemic and has greater impact as the main vector of malaria Anopheles darlingi throughout the state, and Anopheles aquasalis on the coast. Thus, the objective is to identify Plasmodium spp. in neotropical primates and Anopheles in the island municipalities of São Luis and the municipality of Imperatriz, state of Maranhão. For microscopic diagnosis will be used to TBS, which allows differentiation of specific parasites and their developmental stages in the peripheral blood, due to its high concentration in blood, and blood smears, which allows better visualization of the structures of the parasite and the changes characteristics of parasitized erythrocytes. The molecular diagnosis is performed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enabling the identification of conventional and specific real-time PCR, to quantify the parasite DNA, and the amplification-mediated isothermal circuit (LAMP), due to low parasitemia of samples and that these last two techniques are very sensitive. Also there will be evaluated and the frequency of anti-Plasmodium spp. primates in the wild and in captivity, by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test). To a diagnostic immunoassay field is used, which identifies antigens of P. falciparum and / or antigens of other three species that infect man, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. vivax. It is expected as a result identify the species of Plasmodium exist in reservoirs and vectors in the state of Maranhao, Brazil.
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