During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the city of Rio de Janeiro has passed by several social, economic, political, cultural and historical modifications. Since 1808, when the royal family has arrived in Brasil, the city have been radically transformed, with politicians and economical developments - like the independence, the increase of the economy provided by the coffee, the end of the slave trade and investments in the urbanism of city. Because of all these transformations, the urban and housing factors of Rio de Janeiro city in early twentieth century were very different of before. These changes have been described in the literature, especially in the novels of Machado de Assis and Lima Barreto, which had been acclimated in different contexts of Rio de Janeiro. This research investigates the social, urban and housing changes in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using for this the literature of Machado and Lima Barreto. Keywords: Rio de Janeiro; Habitação; Urbanismo carioca; Século XIX; Machado de Assis; Lima Barreto.
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