This research theme is the reflection of Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) on the French Revolution, with emphasis on production of the prison period (1926-1937). Although in previous writings (1919-1926) has treated the subject, was during the writing of his books that it gained scale theoretical and analytical framework that permits the insertion of the Italian Marxist historiographical debate on the French Revolution. In front of a original phenomenon (Russian Revolution) and in confrontation with the history of the configuration process of the modern state in Italy, Gramsci took up that debate. We must therefore consider that his analysis was essentially dialogic and has combined different historical contexts and political traditions. To reconstruct this historical and political interconnection with respect to reflection on the French Revolution, the project will focus Gramsci's dialogue with the Italian historiography liberal - Vincenzo Cuoco (1770-1823) and Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) - on the one hand, and the other with the production of socialist historian Albert Mathiez (1874-1932).
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