The approach of most academic research on technological innovation emphasizes the dimension of economic performance, especially economic growth. Thus, there are plenty of studies about the relationship between the various institutions related to science and technology, education, innovation and technology diffusion.In the economic literature on national innovation these interactions, whether public or private, are called national innovation systems.In contrast to the perspective of national innovation systems, we propose a sociological approach to innovation in one of the sectors most relevant today, the energy sector. The objective of this research is to develop a comparative analysis of social systems of innovation in the energy sector. The focus of the social systems of innovation considers the characteristics of industrial activities, scientific and technical, as well as training of manpower, certain components of the composition of wage and the financial system. This perspective shows how there are interdependencies between science, technology, professional skills, innovation, industrial competitiveness, economic growth, education system, financial system and labor market institutions.The assumption of this research is that the innovation system is the result of a socially constructed process. Innovation can be understood as a process that interacts with the local productive and social environment. There is little academic research in Brazil which focus on innovation in the energy sector. The comparison is made between the social systems of innovation in energy of the United States, China, India and Brazil. According to the hypothesis that guides this research, the social systems of innovation and production in the energy sector are made up of technical components, economic and institutional components are interdependent society.
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