The prefrontal cortex (PfC) occupies the most anterior region of the frontal lobe, showing from a phylogenetic viewpoint a progressive increase of surface. This development has been associated with the acquisition of increasingly sophisticated behaviors.Although the CPF of Old World monkeys (catarrhines) has been extensively studied, the same does not happen with the PFC of platyrrhine monkeys. The evolutionary history of New World monkeys is still open to question, but it is accepted that they evolved independently of Old World monkeys for a period of approximately 30 million years. From an evolutionary perspective, it is important to understand how this process of parallel evolution reflected in the organization of cortical circuitry, and thus the distribution of neuroactive elements can provide relevant information.The parvalbumin (Pv), calbindin (CB) and calretinin (Cr) belong to the group of calcium binding proteins, partially responsible for the buffering of this ion in the nervous system. Sometimes the neurons that express these proteins colocalized with GABAergic interneurons, which is why the study of their distribution in normal and pathological situations also provides important data on the GABAergic circuitry of the cerebral cortex.This project - which continues and complements our study of the distribution of Pv recently finalized - aims to examine the distribution of Cb + and Cr + neurons in several architectonic areas of the Cebus prefrontal cortex, using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and correlate this distribution with the cortical areas defined for the PfC of this species.
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