The sleep apnea syndrome (SAOS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction (VAS), usually associated with hemoglobin desaturation due to partial or total interruption of the flow. Its prevalence in children ranges from 0.7 to 3%. The peak incidence is found in pre-school age group in which is the most common upper airway obstruction by tonsils pharyngeal and palatine. SAOS may be associated with acute and chronic effects on the cardiovascular system as extreme fluctuations in blood pressure, and pulmonary cardiac injury associated with repetitive episodes of apnea and hypoxemia, cor pulmonale, and the negative impact on quality of life of the child, as delayed growth and weight gain, changes in the facial skeleton and chest, and behavior disorders, learning and other cognitive functions. Some authors observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic BP in children with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) greater than 10. The authors suggested that obstructive respiratory disorders in children are risk factors for hypertension, with a positive correlation between the degree of obstructive respiratory disorder and hypertension. Due to the seriousness of the consequences of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, we propose an investigation into the association between hypertrophy and heart problems through a systematic review of cohort studies. The research project will be conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, FMB / UNESP - Botucatu-SP. The systematic review will be conducted in accordance with the methodology of the Cochrane Collaboration, aiming to map all cohort studies identified in major databases. Two reviewers independently will select relevant studies, assess the methodological quality and extract data from studies.
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