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Dural puncture tattooing determine histological changes on the spinal nervous tissue and meninges?

Grant number: 11/05782-1
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): May 01, 2011
Effective date (End): April 30, 2012
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Medicine - Surgery
Principal researcher:Eliana Marisa Ganem
Grantee:Patrícia Gomes Ferreira Netto
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FMB). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Botucatu. Botucatu , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The habit of tattooing the body is part of the culture of many peoples around the world, long ago and, at the dawn of civilization were related to medical rituals, magic, war and also marked stages of life such as birth, puberty the reproductive phase and death. However, from the early 1990s began to be used by some social groups and age determined as a form of body art. The technique consists of putting the tattoo ink pigment into the dermis. The pigment remaining in the fibrous tissue of the dermis is the reponsável by color of the tattoo. The pigments can contain organic and inorganic compounds, metals and solvents. There is great variation in chemical composition of which gives rise to different colors. Many pigments were not intended to be administered in humans, others are not even regulated by federal agencies for this purpose. The dye pigments can cause acute or chronic reactions in the skin. In the U.S., 25% of the population aged between 24 and 50 have tattoos and of these, approximately 50% are women. This is alarming because many women are of childbearing age and may, at some point, be submitted to neuraxial anesthesia. As the location of tattoos is varied not infrequently it fits situated in the lumbar and sacral. Little is known about the possible implications of introducing a needle for regional anesthesia on a tattooed skin. Some authors have questioned whether the pigment contained in the tattoo could trigger chemical arachnoiditis. Very little is described about the possibility of neurological complications that occurred after neuraxial anesthesia puncture which was performed within the tattooed skin. Although no success until the present day, documented evidence or scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that the pigment of the tattoo may cause arachnoiditis or other neurological complications, the precautionary principle guides to avoid puncturing the skin over a tattoo. This research will assess whether the spinal puncture performed on the tattooed skin of rabbits determine histological changes in nerve tissue in spinal cord and meninges. Methodology: After approval of the Ethics Committee on Animal Experiments will be used 30 young adult rabbits, male, race Group Genetic Botucatu with weights between 3500 and 4500g and length of the spine between 38 and 40 cm provided by the vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine Botucatu. The animals will be divided into 3 groups (G): G1 tattoo on spinal puncture, spinal puncture G2 about tattooing and injection of saline and G3 spinal puncture and injection of saline. After intravenous anesthesia with ketamine and xilaziana animals of G1 and G2 are tattooed and after 30 days under the same anesthesia will be made to approach the subarachnoid space (22G Quincke needle 21 / 2) in the intervertebral space between the first and second vertebra sacral guided by ultrasound. The animals from G2 and G3 receive the corresponding solutions in volume in volume by 5 cm ¶ l of the spine (0.2 ml) (space measured between the base of the skull and lumbosacral space) and the G1 will only be performed only punch and after spinal puncture is injected through the needle, 1 ml of saline solution, to carry on a histological smear, which is stained by Giemsa method, for possible identification of the tissue, if present. The animals will be evaluated clinically as sensory and motor for 6 months which will be sacrificed by decapitation under anesthesia and withdrawing to the lumbar and sacral spinal cord for histologic examination by light microscopy.

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