Today there is a great deal in the study of stem cells abilities to form other tissues. These features enable these cells to produce cells from different lines that actively participate in maintaining the process of homeostasis and tissue regeneration. In dentistry, Gronthos et al. 2000, found inside the dental pulp a population of stem cells that were highly proliverative, clonogenic and self-renewable and were able to regenerate tissues. Subsequent studies showed that other regions of the tooth also have stem cell populations with similar characteristics. In addition, our previous studies indicated that slow cycling cells that could migrate and have the ability to respond to injury were found more commonly in the area outside of the tooth when compared with others found inside dental pulp. These cells typically composed the second layer of cells from blood vessels walls and had close proximity with the alveolar bone. However, until now there is no study in the literature that has tried to isolate stem cells from this area even considering that the alveolar bone is commonly exposed and easily accessible during tooth extraction. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of stem cells through their isolation and characterization from the alveolar bone area.
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