The Acanthicus group is allocated in the Ancistrini tribe (Hypostominae, Loricariidae) and is compounded by 13 species in four genera: Acanthicus, Megalancistrus, Pseudacanthicus e Leporacanthicus. The genera Oligancistrus and Spectracanthicus are closely related to the Acanthicus group and have a basal position in relation to the others genera of the group. The taxonomic problems of the taxa that compound the group are usually related with descriptions old and not very informative. Although some phylogenetic studies have been used some taxa of the group; the relationships between all species are yet obscured. Some of the species of the group have many commercial interesting for ornamental aquariums, which lead various descriptions of the species and genera in aquarist reviews. These reviews have generally little circulation and the descriptions have inadequate characterizations with imprecise diagnosis and without a discussion about the species. Although these fishes are easily commercialized in aquarium stores, some of the species of the group are poorly representatives in ichthyological collections. This project has the objectives of: (1) does the taxonomic review of the species of the group, establish actual diagnosis, and identify geographical distributions limits, describe new species for science and determinate synonymies and (2) test the monophyletic hypothesis of the Acanthicus group, through the comparative anatomical studies, with the intuit of detect potentials informative varies to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of the species. The taxonomic review of the group will provide more information about these species and your geographical distribution, which will facilitate the conservation of the group. With the phylogenetic relationships of the group established, the results will available more information about the species taxonomy. The taxonomic review will be carried through anatomical and meristics characters. With base in external morphology and osteology will be constructed a data matrix that will be analyzed through the cladistic methodology to find the most parsimonious hypothesis of the relationships of the taxa analyzed.
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